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KKE was launched as a company in July 2013. Our engineers have many years of local and international experience and the following are their personal past experience highlights:


MTR South Island Line Contract No. 901 – Admiralty Station and SCL Enabling Works (Hong Kong)            

Design of the alternative top-down construction method for the complicated interchange station during the tender stages, detailed design stage and construction engineering stage.  Management of rock tunnelling and traffic management subconsultants.  Nick was Project Manager during the tender stages, Christian was Project Manager during project execution stage.


Central to Wanchai Bypass – Central Interchange Section (Hong Kong)

Nick was Project Manager in charge of the temporary works design associated with the construction of the tunnel and ramp structures.  Critical studies for the associated effects on the adjacent IFC basement structure which is sensitive to change in both earth and hydrostatic pressure.


MTRC Contract 810A – West Kowloon Terminus (Hong Kong)

Tender Designs for this project were prepared on the basis of an alternative top-down construction methodology for a large underground station structure covering 400m by 200m to a depth of 30m. The services included the scheme development of the alternative permanent works and the project wide temporary works and coordinating this with the alternative construction methodology and traffic management for the site.  Christian was Project Manager of the contractor’s lead consultant responsible for leading the multi-disciplinary design team, with specialist sub-consultant support, and reporting to the JV’s Design and Engineering Management team.


Brisbane Airport Link (Australia)

Nick was Project Manager responsible for the initial scheming and subsequent detailed designs of the temporary works associated with the construction of the multiple-award-winning Toombul CC420 jack-box tunnel.  Designed works include the launching raft, ground improvement works under the existing operational railway embankment and the jacking mechanisms of the jack-box tunnel.  Innovative fracture-grouted geonails were designed and used in the ground improvement works carried out in the difficult soft-clay ground condition. 

Video - Brisbane Airport Link - Jack-box Tunnel at Toombul


Al Sowwah Island Bridges (Abu Dhabi)

A Design and Construct Tender for two signature bridges with a value of ~US$150M. The Employers reference designs stipulated a high architectural content with a steel arch span bridge with an arch span of 170m and an asymmetrical cable stayed span with a single tower of 210m spans.  Christian was Bilfinger Berger's Tender Design Manager responsible for leading the development of the bridge designs with value engineering investigation of alternatives. He was Responsible for building the project design team bringing in engineers Leonhardt, Andrae und Partner and architects Kasper & Kasper. His tasks also included the hands-on development of methods and in-house design of temporary works.


Hodariyat Island Bridge (Abu Dhabi)

A Construction Tender for a 1,000m long highway bridge and viaduct with a value of ~US$ 100M. The Engineers design for the main navigation span was based upon a cast in-situ prestressed concrete girder spanning 200m and erected by the balanced cantilever method. The approach viaduct was prestressed concrete girder with typical spans of 55m span and constructed using the incremental launching method. Christian was Bilfinger Berger's Tender Design Manager responsible for leading the development of construction methods, temporary works designs. The main focus being the off-shore construction logistics (off-shore piling from spud barge, delivery of concrete and rebar for off-shore pile cap and pier construction as well as for the main span balanced cantilever construction).


KCRC East Rail Lok Ma Chau Spur Line Extension Contract LCC200 Lok Ma Chau Terminus (Hong Kong)          

Nick was Project Manager responsible for the initial scheming in the early tender stage and the subsequent detailed design in the construction stage of the Precast Alternative for the terminus building structure.  The precast scheme adopted by the Contractor involves the use of both pre-tensioning and post-tensioning shell beams and multi-stage construction.  It also involves precast stair flights and precast concrete façade.


Golden Ears Bridge Project (Vancouver, Canada)

A Design & Construct contract of value ~C$890M consisting of a multiple span cable stayed bridge crossing the Fraser River and over 6.5km of approach viaducts. The viaduct spans were formed from precast NU girders with typical lengths of 50m and unit weights of up to 90 tonnes, and were lifted on top headstocks up to 30m above ground level.  The viaduct foundation system was based on large 2.5m diameter bored mono-piles.  The main cable stayed bridge comprises a composite steel deck with four sets of twin pylons in a span arrangement of 120-240-240-240-120m. A marine foundation system was employed for the pylons using large diameter bored piles constructed through challenging ground conditions that required both permanent casing and polymer slurry for uncased sections at depth.  The main bridge deck was erected by the balanced cantilever method using a pair of lifting gantries to lift 100ton steel grids from barge. 

Christian was Bilfinger Berger’s Design Manager in charge of the construction engineering and temporary works design for all structures including specialist temporary works for main span cable-stayed bridge as well as leading the Value Engineering services for the permanent bridge structures. He was leading in-house design team, as well as managing external teams. Christian and his team carried out lifting studies and methods design for complicated girder erection above life railway and highways.

Golden Ears Bridge - Balanced Cantilever Construction

Golden Ears Bridge - Balanced Cantilever Construction


Alternative Bridge Design for TDD Contract 57/02 Grade Separated Interchange T1/P1/P2 in Tseung Kwan O (Hong Kong)               

Alternative designs for Bridge A, B and C.  Both Bridge A and C are monolithic pier/deck multi-span curved bridge and Bridge B is three-span skew bridge with integral abutment.   Nick was Project Manager responsible for the design management and coordination with the Contractor, the Engineer, the Client (TDD) and other government authorities.  Presentation to ACABAS in relation to the aesthetic aspects of the bridge alternatives.  Initial scheming and detailed designs of an innovative precast parapet construction method.


Highway 1, Port Mann Bridge (Vancouver, Canada)

A Build & Operate Tender undertaken by the Transurban group with a value of ~C$2B.  The project included the construction of a double steel composite deck cable stayed bridge with a main span of 480m crossing the Fraser River and over 4km of approach viaduct.  Christian was introduced to the bid team as part of a technical challenge team reviewing the design and construction methodology on behalf of JV partner Bilfinger Berger.  His role was extended to lead the development of Value Engineering options for the approach spans as well as developing the construction methodology for the main bridge using lessons learned from the nearby Golden Ears Project.Responsible for engaging and managing Value Engineering Consultants in order to develop a pre-cast concrete segmental scheme for the approach viaducts, as an alternative to the composite steel reference design.


Stonecutters Bridge (Hong Kong)

Engaged by the Maeda – Hitachi – Yokogawa – Hsin Chong JV to provide full construction engineering services for this USD280M project. A steel deck cable, stayed bridge with a main span of 1,018m, and towers of 280m height.  Christian was Technical Lead for the construction engineering services provided to the JV by Maunsell-Aecom. Services included: the erection stage analysis for the permanent works; temporary works designs (including the 80m tall falsework system to support the concrete back-span using pre-cast concrete columns and steel bracing with steel trusses to support the deck); camber analysis for steel deck and the geometry control methods for the trial assembly and subsequent free-cantilever construction of steel deck. Particular challenges included the design of an alternative segment lifting system and the erection methodology to control the stresses induced into the units on connection to the cantilever. This entailed the detailed review of permanent deck steel-work design and assessment of locked in stresses.

Stonecutters Bridge - Bridge Deck Construction

Stonecutters Bridge - Deck Construction


KCRC West Rail Contract CC402 Nam Cheong Station & Tunnels (Hong Kong)  

Nick was the substructure Design Team Leader and subsequently Project Manager responsible for the award-winning Alternative Design of Nam Cheong Station & Tunnel Project.  This included the alternative top down design for the Station Track Slab, Concourse, Entrances and Adits of the KCRC West Rail station and MTR Tung Chun Line station.  Nick also took charge in the management of / liaison with the station superstructure team offshore, and carried out the main station top down excavation sequence planning and study of its effects on the adjacent MTR facilities (including excavation under live railway) and other structures.  Detailed analysis for the prediction of deflections of the adjacent railway structures during various construction stages was carried out.  The station foundation design consisted of shaft-grouted barrettes and bored piles.  He was in charge of the Liaison with the Engineer, contractors and government and railway authorities, and the design management for the P1 viaduct alternative design and the associated alteration works for the addition of noise barriers on the completed bridge structure.


Chenab Bridge (Kashmir, India)

Railway Steel Arch Bridge across the Chenab River, forming part of the new Kashmir Railway line in India. Arch span length is 460m, being the longest railway arch bridge in the world; total length of steel superstructure including approach viaducts is 1,313m. Leonhardt Andrae und Partner was appointed as contractors permanent works designer during design and build competition; after the contractor won the contract, Leonhardt continued with the detailed design works, including detailing of a free-cantilever arch and deck construction scheme across the 350m deep gorge, using derrick cranes sitting on the superstructure girder. A total of 35,000 steel to be delivered to remote area in the mountains in Kashmir, with weight restrictions of 20ton per truck and trough narrow and steep mountain roads gave some constraints to the design detailing. Further constraints were the locally available construction technology and material supply chain.

Christian was Project Engineer for concept study, basic design, detailed design, structural analysis of the bridge, steel detailing and seismic analysis.


KCRC West Rail Contract CC300 Tsuen Wan West Station & Tunnels (Hong Kong)        

Nick was Project Manager in charge of the construction methodology and alternative design for the construction of West Rail Tsuen Wan West Station at tender stage.  This included the study and design of temporary works for the main station excavation, and an extensive study of different schemes involving sheetpile, pipepile, soldier-pile, combo-wall and diaphragm wall, strutted and tie-back retention systems.  A full tender design of the temporary works for the running tunnels and the auxiliary structures was carried out.


Bukhang North Harbour Bridge (Korea)

Leonhardt Andrae und Partner was engaged by Hyundai Development Company to carry out a Value Engineering review to a conforming design proposal for a cable-stayed bridge across the north Habour in Busan, Korea.  The service included option assessment of several span arrangements, superstructure types, pylon shapes and cable systems in close cooperation with the Contractor.  The main focus of the value engineering was constructability and cost effectiveness in the light of locally available materials, methods and equipment. The recommendation was for a cables stayed bridge with a steel composite deck and a main span of 540m, Diamond-shape pylons with a height of 180m. Key design issues were ship impact loading, Typhoon wind and seismic design loading. 

Christian was Project Engineer in charge of structural and seismic analysis at concept and value engineering design stage. Basic erection analysis to proof feasibility of proposed scheme. Steel detailing during detailed design support stage.


KCRC West Rail Contracts CC201 and CC211 Viaducts (Hong Kong)            

Nick was in charge of the structural analysis for the tender alternative design and engineering study associated with the viaduct construction. This included a detailed engineering study on foundation alternatives and on geotechnical aspects of both projects,  and a detailed study of bored pile foundation in marble formation in construction stage, which includes detailed numerical simulation of full scale pile load test using finite difference software FLAC.


Second Bridge across the Panama Canal (Panama)

A Construction Contract with a value of ~US$100M.  Leonhardt were initially engaged by the Employer to provide Value Engineering and Detailed Design services for this cable stayed bridge across the Panama Canal. The structure consists of a Cable-stayed bridge with a total length of 820m and a main span of 420m, with 180m tall towers and a 32m wide concrete box superstructure.  Upon Award of the contract to the Bilfinger Berger – Baulderstone Honibrook JV, Leonhardt were engaged to provide erection engineering and temporary works design services. The services including the stage by stage erection analysis and the design of form-travellers for the main deck erection. Form-travellers pre-assembled on the ground and lifted 80m up into position with heavy lift strand jack system (400ton each lift).

Christian was Project Engineer for detailed design of pylons, foundations, and superstructure. He was also responsible for providing construction engineering services on site including camber control calculation and form traveller operations. He stayed permanently on site in Panama from September 2003 until March 2004.

Second Bridge across the Panama Canal - Construction

Second Bridge across the Panama Canal - Construction


MRT Circle Line (Singapore)        

Nick was the Structure Team Leader in the project lead consultant responsible for the initial station scheme design and detailed study on basement construction using diaphragm wall techniques. 


Taiwan High Speed Rail Project (Taiwan)

Christian was a Project Engineer for complete design check of viaducts in Contracts C210 and C215 as Contractor’s Independent Checking Engineer (CICE). Permanent stay in Taipei from August 2000 until September 2002.


Route 3 Tai Lam Tunnel (Hong Kong)            

Nick was responsible for a detailed stress analysis study of the main drill-and-blast tunnel lining of this Design and Construction Project during construction stage.


Ma Chang Bridge (Korea)

Cable-stayed bridge with a total length of 740m and a main span of 400m, steel-composite superstructure. Basic design, stage analysis and detailed design support. Christian was Project Engineer in charge of global analysis including seismic analysis. Design and detailing of various structural members by strut and tie method and finite element method. Detailing of steel superstructure girders. 


Duplicate Tsing Yi South Bridge - Retaining wall R9-11 Alternative Design and Construction (Hong Kong)                

Nick was responsible for the preliminary design in tender stage and detailed design coordination during construction stage of this successful alternative tender. He carried out sophisticated model analysis to predict the levels of settlement during both the construction stage and in the permanent stage by finite difference software FLAC which incorporated multi-stage construction, large displacement behaviour and material non-linearity.